Read transcript from video
INTRO: In this video we will be answering the question: What are anti-nutritional factors and why do we talk about them so much?
Presence of certain antinutritional factors, or ANF’s, in different dietary protein sources reduces the digestibility of protein in food producing animals, leading to a larger proportion of protein that reaches the hindgut where it can be fermented by pathogenic bacteria. As a result of this process, bacterial toxins and other harmful metabolites are produced. Other ANF’s can trigger a direct inflammatory response in the gut leading to a chronical inflammation. This results in less nutrients available for growth and performance of the animals.
Among several common protein sources, soybean meal (SBM) is universally accepted as the source of plant-based protein that contains all the essential amino acids necessary to animal growth and development par excellence. However, SBM also contains certain ANF’s that may compromise animal performance and health when they reach high levels in diets for young animals. The most damaging factors of SBM are trypsin inhibitors, galacto-oligosaccharides, and the antigen beta-conglycinin.
How does each of these ANFs harm young animals?
Trypsin inhibitors restrict the digestibility of protein, which then passes unabsorbed into the large intestine without contributing to animal growth. The undigested protein is fermented by bacteria, including potential pathogens, which produce toxins that impair the integrity and functions of the intestinal epithelium. Toxins absorbed from the gut activate the immune system, which requires energy to combat the toxins. In this way, there is less energy available for growth, resulting in lower performance. In addition, the fermentation of undigested protein by putrefactive bacteria produces many harmful compounds (e.g., amines, indoles, ammonia), which in high concentrations may have further adverse effects on animal growth and performance.
Galacto-oligosaccharides are relevant ANFs in both piglet and chick diets. They cannot be digested by mammals or birds and travel undigested through the gastrointestinal tract, being only partially fermented by the immature microbiota in the large intestine. Non-fermented galacto-oligosaccharides have an osmotic effect that releases water from the gut lining, leading to diarrhea. On the other hand, gas produced by the fermentation process may cause flatulence.
The antigen beta-conglycinin has a negative impact on the gut membrane, causing inflammatory lesions (e.g., cellular apoptosis and villi atrophy) and compromises the gut’s ability to absorb nutrients.
END: ANF’s are just one of the multiple obstacles production animals face in early stages of life, but at Hamlet Protein we can give them a helping hand. If you want to learn more about ANF´s or other interesting topics, then visit go www.hamletprotein.com – thanks for watching